Criminology

Code Course Description
CRIM 1100

Introduction to the Criminal Justice System

This course examines the Canadian Criminal Justice System from a systems approach. A criminal incident will be followed through the system from detection to apprehension of the offender to the end of any formal or informal disposition. The factors involved in the discretion, decisions and practices of the system, including statutory and voluntary agencies will be studied. The functions and dysfunctions of the system will be analyzed and current issues and reform initiatives will be reviewed.

CRIM 1101

Comparative Justice Systems

This course provides the student with the valuable opportunity to study a foreign justice system from a comparative viewpoint. A series of lectures, readings and assignments will precede travel to a foreign jurisdiction where site visits and tours, and interactive seminars will follow. The student will gain first hand experience and knowledge on a foreign jurisdiction as it compares to the Canadian Justice System.

CRIM 1120

Introduction to Policing

This course covers the historical development of policing as a component of the total justice system. Specific topics examined include: the police function, police community roles, authority, police stress, and the organization and structure of policing in Canada. Key issues including the use of force, corruption, accountability and the political dimension of police work are examined in detail.

CRIM 1121

Historical Perspectives In Criminal Justice

This course is a historical review of society's reaction to crime and deviance and the operation of the criminal justice system in Europe and North America over the centuries. This history relates to various political, legal, social, theoretical, philosophical movements and schools of thought. The development of criminal law is traced through the development of the police institution, the courts, the birth of the prison and other secure institutions designed to control the deviant. The history, transformation and evolution of punishment and imprisonment practice that seemingly molds itself independent of actual crime, criminality and perceived deviancy in society are considered. Students conduct in-depth examination of historical forces influencing the development, implementation, and modification of criminal justice approaches.

CRIM 1150

Introduction to Criminology

This course provides an introduction to the basic concepts and content of criminology, such as crime, criminal, delinquent, deviance, treatment, rehabilitation and victim. The position of criminology, its subject matter, and its relationships with other sciences will be examined. The relationships between theory, research, and practice are also included. The history and evolution of criminological thought through classical and modern theories will be critically analysed. Scientific foundations for a modern criminal justice policy will also be critically examined.

CRIM 1160

The Canadian Legal System

This course focuses on the history, development, and present day operation of the Canadian legal system. The topics that will be examined include: constitutional law; criminal, contract, and tort law; human rights; administrative law; the court system; the functions of judges and lawyers; and the basic elements of legal reasoning.

CRIM 1170

Introduction to Corrections

This course examines the current theory and practice of Canadian corrections. Topics include the history of corrections, sentencing, alternatives to incarceration, the incarceration process, correctional workers, institutional programs (e.g., work, education, security, social rehabilitation), community-based corrections programs and , community involvement in corrections. The functions and dysfunctions of corrections will be analyzed and current issues and reform initiatives will be reviewed.

CRIM 2140

Interviewing and Professional Skills

This course focuses on the dynamics of interpersonal communication and professional behaviour present in interviewing situations in the justice system. Personal and professional codes of ethics, confidentiality, values and ethical dilemmas are examined. Attention is given to active listening, response skills, effective inquiry, constructive feedback, elements of verbal and nonverbal communication, and how to structure and facilitate for information in interviews. In-class opportunities are provided for students to challenge, evaluate and shape appropriate professional behaviour and interviewing styles. Opportunities include role-playing, presentations, small group discussion, and simulated interviews. Intended for Criminology and Legal Studies students.

CRIM 2251

Psychological Explanations of Criminal Behaviour

This course will examine psychological approaches to explaining recidivist criminal behaviour. The principal objective for this course is to critically examine some of the historical and contemporary theories that relate to the understanding of deviant and/or criminal acts. The relationship between theory, research, and practice will be explored using theoretical and empirical approaches to examine offending behaviours such as property and/or violent crimes.

CRIM 2252

Sociological Explanations of Criminal Behaviour

This course will critically examine the sociological, socio-cultural, and socio-psychological explanations of criminal behaviour such as the ecological theories, conflict theories, control theories, and symbolic interactionist theories. Some of the specific theories subjected to critical examination will be those concerned with class and group conflict, subcultures, social conditioning, containment, differential association, labelling and gender.

CRIM 2253

Youth, Crime & the Law

This course focuses on identification, reaction, and response to youth crime and deviance. Historical and contemporary contexts are examined. Attention is given to the social construction of the young offender and the emerging criticisms of this label. Theoretical explanations of deviant and criminal behaviour, along with an analysis of the Youth Criminal Justice Act and its application, including components of the justice system, programs and agencies related to youth misconduct are discussed. A series of current trends and topics will also be explored.

CRIM 2254

Research Methods in Criminology

This is an introductory course in research methodology in Criminology and the Social Sciences. Topics addressed include: origin of research questions; qualitative and quantitative approaches; deductive and inductive approaches including theory, hypothesis testing and causality; sampling; and ethical issues in research. Using an inter-disciplinary approach, course materials will focus on research in criminology and criminal justice. Emphasis will be placed on data gathering techniques.

CRIM 2260

Criminal Law

This course is designed to give students an understanding of Canadian criminal law. The course will begin with a review of the sources of criminal law and how criminal law operates within the structure of the justice system. Students will be introduced to the role of criminal law in society through a discussion of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and recent cases. This will be followed by a thorough examination of the principles of substantive Canadian criminal law. The substantive criminal law will be explained and examined by the use of the case method. General principles of law will be discussed in the context of specific cases decided by the courts. Students will be encouraged to consider the law critically, from both an academic and societal perspective.

CRIM 2261

Administration of Justice

This course introduces students to the study of law, politics, and the administration of justice in Canada. The course examines elements of governmental structures and processes impacting on justice policy making and administration. A discussion of these roles and the interplay between judges, legislators, and government and justice system agencies in creation and implementation of policy are also examined. The course will also apply these concepts to a variety of significant current issues in the administration of justice.

CRIM 3310

Advanced Theoretical Perspectives

This course explores the diverse nature of theory within the field of crime and deviance by focusing on modern, post-modern and post-critical theories. The selected paradigms are studied with regard to their explanatory domain, role in examining social and criminological problems and research implications.

CRIM 3320

Environmental Criminology and Law

This course focuses on environmental criminology and law. The course deals with specific issues that pertain to the nature and responses to environmental harm. Crimes against nature include a wide variety of transgressions against humans, environments, and nonhuman animals. The course also deals with broad agendas in the sense of generating conceptual understandings of harm, victimization, law enforcement and social regulation that are relevant for a criminological approach to environmental issues. The course explores the strengths and weaknesses of federal and provincial environmental laws as they apply to water, air, land as well as biodiversity. The course concludes by discussing prescriptions for Canada’s future in terms of the environment.

CRIM 3325

Qualitative Research Methods

This course provides the essential knowledge and skills necessary to carry out qualitative research in Criminology. The course will cover the foundations of a wide variety of specific qualitative techniques including interviews, ethnography, content analysis, historiography and case study methods. As well, key methodological considerations such as ethics, interpretation, assessment, and writing will be examined.

CRIM 3335

Human Rights and Civil Liberties

This course focuses on the relationship between government and the individual. The primary focus is on the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and its interpretation by the judiciary. An examination of issues including equality before the law, freedom of expression, freedom of religion and democratic rights are examined. A study of rights at the international, federal and provincial levels will also be included.

CRIM 3340

Problem Solving & Interventions in Criminal Justice

This course will explore theoretical perspectives and practical skill sets for effective communication, decision making, and problem solving within a criminal justice context. Strategies for crisis intervention and conflict de-escalation and resolution will be introduced. Practical approaches for assessing, managing and intervening in various criminal justice situations will be examined. Challenges with diverse client groups will be identified and interventions surveyed. Student will have ongoing opportunities to develop and practice skills through this highly interactive course.

CRIM 3345

Criminology Practicum

This course provides the student with an opportunity to gain valuable work experience in the criminal justice field. Students will be exposed to the daily operations and informal and formal structure of a chosen agency. The theoretical and substantive roles played by each agency in the wider criminal justice context will be explored.

CRIM 3355

Indigenous Peoples: Crime and Justice

This course examines crime, deviance, and victimization of Indigenous persons and subsequent community and system responses. A critical examination of relevant theory practice will analyze the effects of colonialism both historically and contemporarily. The critical role of the justice system is included. Culturally relevant healing programs and justice initiatives along with community reactions and responses will be examined.

CRIM 3356

The Female Offender

This course will examine the female offender by focussing on how women’s criminality is created and responded to, both historically and in the current Canadian context. The connection between women’s victimization and criminality will be highlighted. The significance of patriarchal ideology and the role of social control agencies in the defining and processing of women as offenders will be examined. Some of the topics to be considered are: historical subordination, traditional and contemporary criminological explanations (specific emphasis will be given to feminist theories), characteristics of Canada’s female offenders, control and punishment, and strategies for change.

CRIM 3362

Criminal Procedure and Evidence

This course examines various topics in criminal procedure and evidence in Canada. It is designed to explain and critique the legal rules pertaining to the gathering of evidence, the court process, the admissibility of evidence at trial and post-conviction sentencing, appeals, and other remedies.

CRIM 3365

Cybercrime

This course explores technical, legal, and social issues related to cybercrime. Cybercrime is a broad term that includes offences where a computer may be the target, crimes where a computer may be a tool used in the commission of an existing offence, and crimes where a computer may play a subsidiary role such as offering evidence for the commission of an offence. The operation of computers and the internet will be discussed. The origins and extent of cybercrime, responses from legal systems to cyber-criminals, and the social impact of cybercrimes will be addressed. Various types of cybercrimes, cyber-criminals, as well as the motivations and methods involved in cyber-offences will be explored. The etiology of cybercrimes will be analyzed from cultural, subcultural, sociological, and opportunity perspectives. International issues and jurisdictional challenges will be critically examined.

CRIM 3370

Sex Offenders and Sexual Offences

This course explores the topic of sexual offenders and sexual offences. Contemporary and historical theory will be critically assessed. Description and prevalence of specific sexual offences, sexual offenders, and coercive paraphilias will be addressed. The etiology of sexual offences will be discussed from sociological, psychological, biological, and multifactorial perspectives. Both sexual and nonsexual recidivism rates of sexual offenders will be compared. An overview of available sex offender risk assessment tools will be discussed and their effectiveness evaluated. Alternative measures, including community notification, available to the criminal justice system will be explored. Treatment options and the general state of sexual offender treatment are reviewed.

CRIM 3375

Correctional Practice and Policy

This course examines contemporary issues in correctional practice and policy. Potential topics of discussion include: conditions of confinement, violence in institutions, prison culture, ethics and critique of correctional practice, the influence of correctional policy, the relationship between community and corrections, the goals of correctional institutions, and future challenges in correctional practice and policy.

CRIM 3376

Restorative Justice

This course provides an exploration of restorative justice. The history, philosophy and strategies of restorative justice are critically examined. Prevailing assumptions about crime and justice are challenged. Retributive and restorative approaches are compared and contrasted. Particular attention is paid to the importance of values and relationships in restorative justice, and concepts such as crime, punishment and justice are juxtaposed to ideas of harms and healing. The importance of the roles of victims, offenders, community, police, corrections, and government are examined. Community development and social justice are considered. Canadian and international examples and expressions of restorative justice programs are discussed. Consideration is given to evaluation and assessment of restorative justice initiatives, as well as attempts to co-opt restorative justice for purposes inconsistent with the philosophy.

CRIM 3380

Organized Crime

This course provides an examination of the many forms of organized crime from traditional organized crime groups to street level gangs. A review of relevant academic and legal sources will be conducted to illustrate the phenomenon of organized crime. A specific focus will be on current events in British Columbia and moreover, how local crime groups and crime industries impact on a global perspective. Additional topics will include political responses to organized crime and gang violence, and how people in Canada are influenced by media and the unique U.S. experience. Students will develop a comprehensive understanding of the topic through indepth study of relevant literature, research, and the evaluation of recent developments in the area.

CRIM 3385

Community Crime Prevention

This course examines primary, secondary and tertiary approaches to the prevention of crime in order to provide students with a conceptual framework from which they can evaluate and create programs to reduce crime in the community. The conceptual framework will draw from principles of community and developmental psychology, environmental criminology and security administration. The emphasis in the course will be on the “environment,” including social, cultural and physical surroundings and finding ways, using planning, architecture, situational crime prevention, programming, and social justice means to reduce the amount of spatial clustering or “hot spots” of crime and development of crime.

CRIM 3390

Crime and Intelligence Analysis

This course introduces students to the types of crime and intelligence analysis, and the roles played by analysts themselves. Students will also learn the fundamentals of crime analysis, core competencies, models of intelligence and logic; as well as, preparing and presenting intelligence end-products. Students are introduced to data-mining and visual investigative systems, as well as crime analysis and mapping software for criminal justice purposes.

CRIM 4410

Mental Disorder and the Law

This course focuses on experiences of those with mental disorders in the criminal justice system. Students are introduced to relevant professional disciplines in the Canadian criminal justice and forensic psychiatric systems. The course focuses on criminal process and procedures in place to detain and treat criminally accused, mentally disordered persons. The legal concept of “protection of the public” is examined along with current issues in mental health law. A critical review of legal provisions with regard to the treatment, care, and control of mentally disordered persons from both practical and theoretical perspectives is undertaken.

CRIM 4420

Media, Crime and Criminal Justice

This course examines the relationship between media, crime and the criminal justice system. Emphases are placed on how various types of media construct or perceive criminal activities, how the media influences public policy and shapes perceptions of crime as a social problem. Students will learn to interpret and analyze specific examples of media representations of crime. Topics include crime news and entertainment, the media as a cause, consequence and cure for crime and news making criminology.

CRIM 4440

Police and Community

This course examines the philosophy and practice of community policing and contrasts community-based approaches with traditional models of policing. The course critically explores the history of community policing and police reform in Canada specifically and in North America generally. It reviews the structure and delivery of modern policing services as a response to contemporary issues such as fear of crime and the changing nature of crime in diverse communities.

CRIM 4460

Victimization

This course will explore developments and critical issues from the field of victimology. The construction of the “victim” will be discussed by tracing the evolution of this designation through the development of the formalized justice system through to current debates. Topics such as the multidimensional impacts of crime and other social harm, the needs of victims, the evolution of victim’s rights, and trends in responses and legislation with respect to victims will be covered. Special attention will be paid to the human dimensions of victimization and the importance of considering the needs of those harmed in justice responses.

CRIM 4470

Gambling in Canada

Gambling has become a ubiquitous form of human behaviour in most societies. This course considers gambling in late modernity through an examination of the historical, legal, political, economic, social and cultural features of western societies with an emphasis on how these features have influenced public policies in Canada. Course themes include an historical synopsis, legal issues, public policy formation, gambling participation, gambling addiction, government operation and regulation, Indigenous gaming, and criminological concerns such as organized crime, loan sharking, money laundering, fraud and corruption.

CRIM 4480

Forensic Sciences

This course explores the basic concepts and the main areas of forensic science. It will examine the use and interpretation of physical forensic evidence in court. It will evaluate the major forensic sciences currently used in criminal investigations, as well crime scene procedures. Topics examined may include anthropology, fingerprints, biology including serology and DNA, trace evidence, toxicology, firearms and tool mark evidence, questioned documents, and computer forensics.

CRIM 4490

Human Death Investigations

This course will give an overview of some of the main types of human death investigations. An understanding of the approach, biological mechanisms of death, and the role of the “investigator” in various death scenarios will be discussed. This course will also focus on the use of a standardized approach to the investigation of sudden deaths, to recognize the features of each specific death type, and to understand the importance of scene investigation.

CRIM 4510

Special Topics in Community and Institutional Practice

This course examines a specific topic or emerging issue in the field of Criminology as it relates to Community and Institutional Practice. Content may include theory, legislation and policy, procedures and practical application, and critical debate relevant to the specific topic.

CRIM 4520

Special Topics in Crime Analysis and Prevention

This course examines a specific topic or emerging issue in the field of Criminology as it relates to Crime Analysis and Prevention. Content may include theory, legislation and policy, procedures and practical application, and critical debate relevant to the specific topic.

CRIM 4530

Special Topics in Legal Studies

This course examines a specific topic or emerging issue in the field of Criminology as it relates to Legal Studies. Content may include theory, legislation and policy, procedures and practical application, and critical debate relevant to the specific topic.

CRIM 4900

Criminology Honours Seminar

This seminar is designed for students who wish to complete an honours degree and/or attend graduate school. Topics include developing research topics, ethics, graduate school applications, and the peer review process. Students will have the opportunity to present and receive feedback on their Honours Thesis proposal.

CRIM 4910

Criminology Honours Thesis I

Honours Thesis I provides students with an opportunity to conduct independent research within a specific area of interest in criminology. Under the supervision of a faculty member, students will complete a literature review and analysis of published empirical work on their selected topic. Students will be required to submit a paper outlining a summary of the previous literature, and the design for an original research project, which may include a completed research ethics review form.

CRIM 4920

Criminology Honours Thesis II

In this course, Honours students will continue to develop their research skills under the supervision of a faculty member. Students will collect data using the approved methods from their research project in CRIM 4910. Honours students will analyze and interpret their results, as well as present their thesis both orally and in writing.