This course involves three hours a week of classroom instruction and one hour a week of tutorials in which selected problems from the textbook are solved.
- An Introduction – What is Biochemistry?
- Water and Acid-Base concepts
- Amino acids, peptides, and proteins
- The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
- pH, pK, and pI.
- Peptide sequencing
- Protein structure
- Titration curves of amino acids and peptides
- Globular proteins
- Myoglobin (Mb) – structure, function, and behaviour
- Hemoglobin (Hb) – structure, function, and behaviour
- Major differences between myoglobin and hemoglobin
- Adult hemoglobin versus fetal hemoglobin
- The effect of certain metabolites (i.e. H+ ions, CO, and BPG) on hemoglobin
- Sickle cell anemia and its effect on hemoglobin structure and function
- Enzyme Kinetics
- Enzymes as biological catalysts
- Reaction rates
- The specificity of enzymes for their substrates
- Specific catalytic groups and their contribution to catalysis
- Substrate concentrations
- The Michaelis-Menten Equation
- Lineweaver-Burk plots
- The meaning of Vmax and Km as they relate to enzymes
- Reversible and irreversible inhibition
- The affect of pH on enzyme activity
- Allosteric enzymes, and how their kinetics differ from those of non-allosteric enzymes
- The Laws of Thermodynamics – a short review
- Standard and Actual Free-Energy Change
- The Equilibrium Constant
- Coupled reactions
- Phosphate group transfers and ATP
- The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle or Krebs Cycle
- The Electron Transport System
- The Glycerol-Phosphate and Malate-Aspartate Shuttle Mechanisms
- Glycogen metabolism – Glycogen synthesis and Glycogenolysis
- Other alternative oxidative pathways
- The effects of hormones on metabolism
- Integration of metabolism
Upon completion of Biology 2421, the student will be able to:
- Describe the chemistry of water, acid-base properties, and buffers.
- Describe the chemistry of amino acids.
- Explain how protein sequence is determined, and describe the structure of peptides.
- Describe the structure of proteins, especially in terms of how this structure relates to function.
- Describe what allosteric proteins are, and their importance.
- Describe the structure, function, and behaviour of hemoglobin and myoglobin.
- Describe enzyme kinetics.
- Explain basic bioenergetic principles as they relate to catabolism in the cell – free energy, coupled reactions, nucleotides.
- Describe the chemistry of carbohydrates – structure and function.
- Explain in detail the process of cellular respiration – glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport and ATP synthesis.
- Describe anabolism in the cell in terms of gluconeogenesis.
- Describe the biosynthesis of macromolecules (specifically polysaccharides) in terms of glycogen synthesis, and describe the degradation of macromolecules in terms of glycogenolysis.
- Describe metabolic control in the cell and energy charge.
- Describe regulation in the cell in terms of hormone action.
- Provide brief descriptions of alternative oxidative pathways – i.e. lipid and fatty acid oxidation, amino acid oxidation, the phosphogluconate pathway.
- Provide a brief overview of human metabolism in terms of interrelationships between the catabolic and anabolic pathways discussed during the course of the semester.
|Two term examinations||30-50%|
|One final examination||30-40%|
The student should consult the Bookstore for the latest required course materials or textbook.
Example: Nelson and Cox. Lehninger – Principles of Biochemistry (6th or current edition). New York: Worth Publishers.