Lectures and associated laboratory problems will constitute the main mode of instruction. Audio-visual aids will be used where appropriate. Field trip will be conducted out of class time.
- The Hydrosphere
- Origin of the Oceans
- Early Exploration of the Oceans
Structure of the Ocean Basins
- Ocean Ridges
- Ocean Trenches
- Abyssal Plains
- Continental Shelves
Plate Tectonics and the Formation of the Ocean Basins
- Spreading Ridges
- Subduction Zones
- Transform Faults
- Seismicity in the oceans
Physical Aspects of the Oceans
- Chemistry of Sea Water
- Physical Properties of Sea Water
- Surface Currents
- Deep Ocean Currents
- Tides and Waves
- Coastal Geomorphology
- Coastal Sediment – detritus – source / transport / deposition
- Coastal Sediments – orthochemical – corals / sabkhas
Deltas / Estuaries
- Physical Characteristics
- The Fraser Delta – character and development
- Ancient Deltas
- Source and transport mechanisms
- Continental shelves
- Turbidity currents – turbidite facies
- Deep Ocean Sediments – origin / character / distribution
- Palaeogeography / Palaeoceanography – Sea Level change
- Facies models – Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin
- Climate history
- Ancient life in the oceans
Physical Resources of the Oceans
- Ore deposits
- Oil / gas deposits
- Ancient analogs
Oceans and the Environment
- The Atmosphere and the Oceans – the Carbon Cycle
- Oil Spills
- Sewage disposal – marine dumping
Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
- Describe and draw plan and profile sketches of the major topographic features of the ocean floor.
- Describe the formation of the major topographic features of the ocean floor in terms of plate tectonic processes.
- Show an understanding of the physical and chemical properties of sea water.
- Show an understanding of the origin and character of surface and deep ocean currents.
- Describe the formation of tides and waves and their effect of ocean basins and coastal margins.
- Describe the processes of erosion and deposition at coastlines and the resulting coastal landforms.
- Describe and identify sediment found in coastal margins and their ancient lithified analogs. Show an understanding of the processes involved in the formation of such sediment.
- Describe and show an understanding of the physical and biological processes which control the development of deltaic and estuarine environments.
- Describe the character of the Fraser Delta and its development over geologic time.
- Show an understanding of the sedimentation process and resulting sediment character and distribution on the ocean floor.
- Describe the change in land/sea relationship over time, how this is determined, and its effect on the distribution of life in the oceans.
- Describe the formation of a variety of oil/gas and ore deposits in the ocean.
- Describe the importance of the oceans as generators of weather and climate patterns and the interaction of the oceans and the atmosphere.
- Describe the likely sources of contamination of the oceans and discuss the various remedial methods used to mitigate the impact of these contaminants.
|Lab problem sets (4)||40%|
Textbooks and Materials to be Purchased by Students
Davis Jr., Richard A., (1991) Oceanography: An introduction to the Marine Environment, 2nd Ed., Wm. C. Brown Pub.
GEOL 1120, 1121