This course uses a problem-based learning format to study the anatomy and physiology of humans. Students use a problem-based process to examine cellular structure and function, tissue structure, homeostasis, and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, and immune systems. Enrolment is usually limited to students in the Therapeutic Recreation program.
The major topics in the course include problems that involve the following learning issues:
1. Atoms and Molecules
1.1. The properties of matter and the four major elements that make up most of living matter
1.2. An atom’s composition and its relationship to the chemical properties of elements
1.3. Valence electrons and shells, and the relative activity of atoms with complete and incomplete valence shells
1.4. How atoms form molecules, and the different types of bonds that exist within molecules
2. Cells – Structure and Function
2.1. The cell theory
2.2. Basic structural differences between plant and animal cells
2.3. Cellular organelles and their specific functions
2.4. The differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and the evolutionary relationship between the two
2.5. How cells communicate with their environment and why this is important
2.6. The difference between normal cell division (mitosis) and cancerous growth
3. Tissue Structure
3.1. The various types of tissues that comprise the human body, and their functions
3.2. Organs and organ systems
3.3. Hierarchical organization of the human body
3.4. Examples of tissues, organs, and organ systems in the human body
4.1. The importance of homeostasis to normal body functioning
4.2. Examples of homeostatic mechanisms in the body
4.3. Comparisons between negative and positive feedback mechanisms
4.4. Components of a homeostatic feedback loop
5. Integumentary System
5.1. Structure of the skin.
5.2. Review the function of skin in maintaining health
5.3. Review the involvement of the integumentary systems in the homeostasis of water balance and temperature
5.4. Review of skin layers, and consequences for damage to each layer and implications with respect the extent of surface area involved
6. Skeletal System
6.1. Bone cell, tissues
6.2. Types of bone and bone growth
6.3. Anatomy of skeletal system
6.4. Structure and types of joints
6.5. Relationship of muscles to joints
6.6. Types and causes of arthritis
7. Muscular System
7.1. Physiology of muscle action
7.2. Anatomy of muscular system with respect to movement
7.3. Biomechanics of movement
8. Introduction to the Nervous System
8.1. Organization of the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), and autonomic nervous system (ANS)
8.2. Structure and function of the brain
8.3. Structure and function of the spinal cord
8.4. Physiology of impulse transmission
8.5. Spinal and cranial nerves
8.7. Sensory and motor pathways
9. Respiratory System
9.1. Anatomy of respiratory system
9.2. Relationship between respiratory system and blood gases
9.3. Importance of breathing, with specific reference to brain cells
9.4. Review of normal respirations/minute and reasons for deviance
9.5. Causes and consequences of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
10. Circulatory System
10.1. Anatomy of circulatory system
10.2. Relationship of circulatory system to the skin, the brain and digestive system
10.3. Causes and consequences of lack of blood to cells
10.4. Relationship between nutrition and cardiovascular health
10.5. Review of normal pulse and blood pressure
10.6. Review of diagnostic tests, including normal counts of white blood cells, red blood cells, blood pH, hematocrit and blood proteins
10.7. Significance of blood tests and homeostasis of body
10.8. Connection between body weight and reproductive hormones
10.9. Relationship of endocrine system to appropriate food intake
10.10. Significance of serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride)
10.11. Causes and consequences of shock
11. Immune System
11.1. Nonspecific defenses (membrane barriers, cellular and chemical defenses)
11.2. Specific immune defenses – immunity
11.3. Interactions with other systems – complement proteins
11.5. Humoral immune response/cell-mediated response
11.6. Immunodeficiciencies/autoimmune diseases
Methods of Instruction
Learning activities include lecture and group discussion, case study analysis and may include group projects and laboratory at the discretion of the instructor. The information content is integrated with problem sets, videos, laboratory experiences, journal articles and textbook readings.
Means of Assessment
Evaluation will be carried out in accordance with Douglas College policy. The instructor will present a written course outline with specific evaluation criteria at the beginning of the semester. Evaluation will be based on the following:
|Type of evaluation
|Term exam 1
|Term exam 2
- Weekly group work (in class or lab) will be evaluated in two ways. Each working group will hand in their responses to the case, together with a Peer Evaluation Rubric, completed by each team member Responses will be evaluated by the instructor for completeness, correctness and group participation. In addition, a short quiz will be administered the following week in order to assess individual understanding of the case.
- Examinations are a combination Multiple Choice and Short Answer Questions. Each term exam will take between 1.5 and 2 hours, and the final exam will take between 1.5 and 3 hours.
Upon completion of this course, students will have
- Gained an understanding of basic human anatomy and physiology in a context that will be useful to them in their work.
- Learned how to integrate knowledge, including how to use inquiry, critical thinking and scientific reasoning to solve problems.
- Experienced the value of teamwork, of developing good interpersonal skills, and the importance of psycho-social issues in maintaining health and wellness.
More specifically, students will learn to
- Develop an appreciation for the interrelated nature of the physical, biological and behavioural mechanism that must be considered with each health problem during the process of generating a management plan.
- Reinforce and/or develop effective reasoning processes including the skills of problem solving, hypothesis generation, critical appraisal of available information, data analysis, and decision making.
- Effectively use a problem-solving process to formulate a plan to address any health-related problem independently or in a group, in a timely manner.
- Critically evaluate literature, research findings, laboratory data and other resources in relation to accuracy, relevance and utility.
- Develop creative strategies for addressing problems by considering alternative ways of viewing a problem or situation.
- Function effectively as an active participant within a small group.
- Share and explain information.